11 (The Ascension Oratorio). In choral music: The mass Bach’s Mass in B Minor (1733–38) was a monument of the preceding Baroque era. 171 (1729) 'Gott, wie dein Name, so ist ouch dein Ruhm' ('God, Thy fame is as Thy name'). Some kind of Royal Title from the Dresden Court would give him the prestige he needed and felt was his due. It uses almost the same music as 'Ach bleibe doch, mein liebstes Leben' ('Oh, stay with me, my dearest life'), from Cantata No. Agnus Dei. The romantic age’s concern with its roots led Germans to rediscover the music of Bach; simultaneously, a new appreciation of history in England led to a Bach revival there as well. The B minor Mass is a true challenge for any musician because of the work’s immense spiritual and aesthetic dimension, and also because its perfect balance between virtuosity, emotion, purity and eloquence scales such giddy heights of musical language that it attains to the highest and most universal expression ever achieved by man. Though this was not immediately forthcoming, after a reminder in 1736 by Bach's influential friend Count von Keyserlingk, the title of Compositeur of the Royal Court Capelle was "conferred upon Johann Sebastian Bach on the latter's most humble entreaty and because of his ability". Though Saxony was fervently Lutheran Protestant, August I had converted to Catholicism in order to accept the Polish Crown, and his successor August II followed suit. Postscript The Gratias is a fairly straight copy of the opening chorus of Cantata No. Since the text is a supplication to the Father, the mood is spiritual, but with an increasing sense of urgency. It uses almost the same music as 'Ach bleibe doch, mein liebstes Leben' ('Oh, stay with me, my dearest life'), from Cantata No. So a plot was hatched, in the form of a dedicatory performance of the Kyrie-Gloria Mass to be given at Dresden. Kyrie Eleison (Greek for "Lord have mercy") is a very old, even pre-Christian expression used constantly in all Christian liturgies. The setting of Et in terra pax was grafted on to it without a break. The choir for this piece is divided into six parts. For his friend the music-loving Count Anton von Sporck, a great admirer of Bach's cantatas who was unable to perform them in his home in Bohemia which was strictly Catholic, Bach had cleverly assembled some of his finest cantata movements into four short masses, the Missae Breves, thus disguising Lutheran cantata choruses and arias as Catholic pieces! According to Geiringer, “In this way the composer concluded his [Catholic] Mass with the expression of gratitude traditional in the Lutheran service.”—Jonathan D. Kramer, General Info: 513.621.1919Box Office: 513.381.3300contact@mayfestival.com, COPYRIGHT 2020 - CINCINNATI MUSIC FESTIVAL ASSOCIATION. On April 20, 1733, the Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland made his entry into Leipzig. Preparations were set in motion. Furthermore, since the work was put together from several different earlier works, it is less a unified conception than an all-embracing hymn of belief, referring to both early and recent sacred music and to both sacred and secular styles. Recording of Bach's B-Minor Mass. He never heard it in his lifetime. The words of the Nicene Creed were formulated by the bishops and were a statement of the most important beliefs of Christianity, being an Ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and major Protestant churches. 46 (1723), 'Schauet doch und sehet' ('Behold and see if there be any sorrow like unto His sorrow'). Recording of Bach's B-Minor Mass. The Nicene Creed is much longer than the better-known Apostles' Creed and is usually said by Christians during the celebration of the Eucharist (Mass or Holy Communion). The six-voice chorus in the Sanctus symbolizes the six wings of the Seraphim, as described by the prophet Isaiah in a biblical passage that contains the Sanctus text. Notice the way the vocal duet includes writing in parallel intervals and strict imitation, both indicating the unity of Father and Son. The third part, consisting of the Organ Mass with the Prelude and Fugue [“St. The duet Et in unum Dominum is set for soprano and alto with oboe and strings. It affirms that Jesus is God 'of one being with the Father', which stresses the Oneness of God. 215 (1734) 'Preise dein Glucke, gesegnetes Sachsen' ('Praised be your fortunes, most blessed Saxony'), a piece performed in honour of the coronation of Augustus III as King of Poland. This may well have given Bach the idea of assembling his great Mass from his own earlier works. The choir for this piece is divided into six parts. The performing parts were copied out in secret by members of the Bach family only, so that neither the Thomas School nor City officials would be aware of Bach's intentions. I think it is precisely because the B minor Mass represents a form of “complete” Bach (ie. Completed in 1748, with individual parts composed and performed earlier. He was the head of music for the immensely wealthy Esterházy family in modern-day Austria, writing and directing for their bustling cultural life. The virtuosity continues, as this delicate movement suggests a double concerto, with violin and mezzo-soprano as soloists. Johann Sebastian Bach's Mass in B Minor was his last completed work and an acknowledged masterpiece of the then-prevalent practice of parody. Preparations were set in motion. Its three sections state beliefs about God (Credo in unum Deum sections 1,2), Jesus Christ (Et in unum Dominum, sections 3-6), and other aspects of Christianity (Et in Spiritum Sanctum sections 7-9). Classical Features Best Bach Works: 10 Essential Pieces By The Great Composer. Patrem omnipotentum. According to Ancient Custom, the new Landesherr would visit the important cities of his territory, to receive there the greetings of the populace. The Laudamus te, with its beautiful soprano solo balanced by an equally beautiful violin obbligato, has all the hallmarks of having originally been a violin duet. KEYNOTE. While the Mass of 1733 (the Kyrie and Gloria) provided suitable music for the Royal Visit, and would subsequently lay the foundation stone for the Mass in B-Minor, Bach also had another purpose in mind for this 1733 work. The Benedictus, apparently the vestige of a lost tenor aria, with its slow, long, graceful vocal and instrumental lines is an evocation of serene love and longing. During the Church Service in the Nikolaikirche, Leipzig's main church, Capellmeister and Director Musices Johann Sebastian Bach conducted a performance of the Kyrie and Gloria especially composed for the Occasion. Credo. The Quoniam, with its dark tones of horn obligato and well-rounded bassoon duet figurations, provides an impressive vehicle for the bass soloist, and leads straight into the gloriously jubilant Cum Sancto Spiritu, complete with agile choral fugue, marking the end of Bach's original Missa. The magnificence of this work is signalled at the very outset with the mighty adagio five-part setting of the words Kyrie eleison succeeded by a fugal section of architectural grandeur and complexity. The first part of the Gloria, a joyous outpouring, was probably reworked from a now lost instrumental movement. The Mass springs out from the depths of hopelessness with the jubilant Et resurrexit, again apparently reworked from an instrumental movement. The Agnus Dei, which follows a straight reprise of the Osanna, is scored for alto solo matched to a low-lying ritornello for strings. For his friend the music-loving Count Anton von Sporck, a great admirer of Bach's cantatas who was unable to perform them in his home in Bohemia which was strictly Catholic, Bach had cleverly assembled some of his finest cantata movements into four short masses, the Missae Breves, thus disguising Lutheran cantata choruses and arias as Catholic pieces! Kyrie Eleison (Greek for "Lord have mercy") is a very old, even pre-Christian expression used constantly in all Christian liturgies. For the scores being prepared could not have been destined for use in Leipzig, but clearly for St Sophia's Church Dresden where W.F. Contrasting with the dense texture of the Osanna is the tranquil, chamber-like Benedictus, scored for tenor, solo violin or flute (Bach did not specify which), and continuo instruments. Bach moved to Leipzig on May 22, 1723, where for the remaining 27 years of his life he was to live and work as Cantor, or Directore Chori Musici Lipsiensis – Director of Choir and Music in Leipzig. In these last years of his life, Bach's creative energy was conserved for the highest flights of musical expression. Yet he often found himself subjected to petty criticisms by his employers, the Leipzig Town Council. It was started in 1733 and completed the year before he died, by which stage he was blind. For the scores being prepared could not have been destined for use in Leipzig, but clearly for St Sophia's Church Dresden where W.F. Furthermore, Bach took care to gain prior support from officials at the Dresden Court and leading players in the Dresden Court Capelle. Actually, the B Minor Mass is not usable in the Catholic liturgy. For the scores being prepared could not have been destined for use in Leipzig, but clearly for St Sophia's Church Dresden where W.F. It might be added that thereafter there were no further records of disagreements between Bach and either the School or City authorities. Bach does not simply adopt the old style without modifications, however; the fugue subject clearly has his own stamp. This intense piece is scored by low sounds—bass voice, horn, two bassoons and continuo—despite the text saying “You alone are the high above all.” The opening two measures in the horn are the same whether played backward or forward—a symbol, according to musicologist Helmuth Rilling, of the risen Christ. The chorus Et incarnatus est depicts an intense awe, an emotion that is deepened into despair in the Crucifixus, reworked from a chorus in a youthful Weimar Cantata, No. Bach uses stile antico, the archaic style of 16th-century church music, to make the mood simpler and more objective than in the first Kyrie. The second Kyrie, for four-part choir, has an intense, chromatic fugal subject. Bach was organist, since the organ there was tuned a whole tone lower than those of the Leipzig churches. The complete B Minor Mass was first heard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1859. One of the greatest works by one of classical music’s greatest composers, the B Minor Mass is both majestic and mysterious. In this book George B. Stauffer explores the music and complex history of Bachs last and possibly greatest masterpiece. In this book George B. Stauffer explores the music and complex history of Bach's last and possibly greatest masterpiece. Recording of Bach's B-Minor Mass. 46 (1723), 'Schauet doch und sehet' ('Behold and see if there be any sorrow like unto His sorrow'). Carl Friedrich Zelter rehearsed the B Minor Mass in Berlin in 1811, but he felt it impractical to perform this monumental work. PART TWO: Symbolum Nicenum ( Credo) Kyrie Eleison (Greek for "Lord have mercy") is a very old, even pre-Christian expression used constantly in all Christian liturgies. The Nicene Creed is much longer than the better-known Apostles' Creed and is usually said by Christians during the celebration of the Eucharist (Mass or Holy Communion). The setting of Et in terra pax was grafted on to it without a break. From 1740 until his death in 1750, Bach would become more introspective, philosophical, looking back over his varied life and compositions, and reviewing the legacy he would leave to the future – for he certainly considered this an important aspect of his art, especially as tastes in music were turning rapidly away from the baroque arts of fugue and counterpoint towards the more informal style of the rococo and classical periods. The Mass in B minor was not performed in its entirety in Bach’s lifetime. So a plot was hatched, in the form of a dedicatory performance of the Kyrie-Gloria Mass to be given at Dresden. For the scores being prepared could not have been destined for use in Leipzig, but clearly for St Sophia's Church Dresden where W.F. The magnificence of this work is signalled at the very outset with the mighty adagio five-part setting of the words Kyrie eleison succeeded by a fugal section of architectural grandeur and complexity. Furthermore, Bach took care to gain prior support from officials at the Dresden Court and leading players in the Dresden Court Capelle. This comfortable security of position combined with the fact that Bach had established, during his first six or seven years' tenure, a more than sufficient repertoire of cantatas (it has been suggested that he composed in total some 300), allowed him to widen his musical scope of activity. Mass in B minor BWV232 [109'09] Of all Bach’s great output of sacred vocal music, the Mass in B minor stands alone, not just for its supreme musical greatness, but because it was composed for no specific occasion. The style is again reminiscent of 16th-century practices. Kyrie I. So the Dresden Court was officially Catholic. Mass in B Minor – David Hill reflects on a great masterpiece. Part Three is a linked set of organ pieces based on the fundamental components of the Lutheran liturgy, while Part Four is the Goldberg Variations. Sunday, September 13, 2020 9:00 PM. 12 (1714) 'Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen' (Weeping, wailing, grieving, fearing). Yet he often found himself subjected to petty criticisms by his employers, the Leipzig Town Council. The style of Palestrina is invoked by the absence of large skips in the vocal lines and the use of the instruments to reinforce the voice parts rather than to provide independent contrapuntal lines. Preparations were set in motion. Bach was organist, since the organ there was tuned a whole tone lower than those of the Leipzig churches. Part Three is a linked set of organ pieces based on the fundamental components of the Lutheran liturgy, while Part Four is the Goldberg Variations. The symmetry is apparent as the bass aria, Et in Spiritum, recalls in tone Et in unum Dominum, and the fugal Confiteor, like the first movement of the Credo, harks back to the older church style and uses plainsong to underpin the firmness of the belief it represents. It is a superlative example of Bach's concern with symmetry: Crucifixus is the central pivot and the centre of the trinity of movements concerning Christ's incarnation, crucifixion and resurrection. 12 (1714) 'Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen' (Weeping, wailing, grieving, fearing). The use of stile antico precludes a subjective statement of belief. He was then conducted to the Rathaus, the Town Hall, receiving Greetings from members of the Council and University. The Mass springs out from the depths of hopelessness with the jubilant Et resurrexit, again apparently reworked from an instrumental movement. As the text now refers to Jesus, the second member of the Holy Trinity, the music becomes more personal and intimate. The Domine Deus is a duet for tenor and soprano, with accompaniment for flute and muted strings. The fugue subject involves several sharped notes: sharps look like crosses, and the German words for “sharp” and “cross” are identical. The Credo bursts forth with two vibrant fugal choruses. This respect had grown steadily, as Bach's reputation widened, and as he gained the official title of Court Composer to the Dresden Court – the Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. ... above all, inspired melodic material interweaving through the compositional elements. The first, in antique style, is based upon the plainchant associated with the words 'Credo in unum deum' and symbolises strength of faith; the second is adapted from a chorus of praise from Cantata No. Following a short period at Mühlhausen, he moved to the princely Court at Weimar in 1708. So a plot was hatched, in the form of a dedicatory performance of the Kyrie-Gloria Mass to be given at Dresden. The chorus Et incarnatus est depicts an intense awe, an emotion that is deepened into despair in the Crucifixus, reworked from a chorus in a youthful Weimar Cantata, No. The symmetry is apparent as the bass aria, Et in Spiritum, recalls in tone Et in unum Dominum, and the fugal Confiteor, like the first movement of the Credo, harks back to the older church style and uses plainsong to underpin the firmness of the belief it represents. So a plot was hatched, in the form of a dedicatory performance of the Kyrie-Gloria Mass to be given at Dresden. The Gratias is a fairly straight copy of the opening chorus of Cantata No. Its use establishes a tone of timeless nobility. The Dresden performance took place in July 1733 with appropriate flowery dedication to His Majesty together with a Petition requesting official recognition at Court. Does anyone? Recording of Bach's B-Minor Mass. The Agnus Dei, which follows a straight reprise of the Osanna, is scored for alto solo matched to a low-lying ritornello for strings. Osanna II. Since Bach brought together these diverse movements into a single mass only two years before his death, it is unlikely that it was ever performed during his lifetime. This Sunday at 9, Nikolaus Harnoncourt leads the Vienna State Opera Chorus and Concentus Musicus of Vienna, and a brilliant cast of soloists, in Mozart’s glorious masterpiece, the “Great” Mass in C minor. The performing parts were copied out in secret by members of the Bach family only, so that neither the Thomas School nor City officials would be aware of Bach's intentions. 3. 215 (1734) 'Preise dein Glucke, gesegnetes Sachsen' ('Praised be your fortunes, most blessed Saxony'), a piece performed in honour of the coronation of Augustus III as King of Poland. The performing parts were copied out in secret by members of the Bach family only, so that neither the Thomas School nor City officials would be aware of Bach's intentions. MOZART "Great" Mass in C minor, K. 427 Krisztina Laki and Zsuzsanna Denes, sopranos Bach was organist, since the organ there was tuned a whole tone lower than those of the Leipzig churches. The history of its recordings traces the half-century of evolution of Baroque performance practice. Preparations were set in motion. By this time, Bach had established a wide reputation as composer, musician, organist, and as an expert in organ construction and acoustics. Its three sections state beliefs about God (Credo in unum Deum sections 1,2), Jesus Christ (Et in unum Dominum, sections 3-6), and other aspects of Christianity (Et in Spiritum Sanctum sections 7-9). Quoniam. Qui tollis. By 1730 Bach had become widely respected as a composer, musician, teacher, organist, and specialist in organ construction. 171 (1729) 'Gott, wie dein Name, so ist ouch dein Ruhm' ('God, Thy fame is as Thy name'). Et in Spiritum Sanctum. Thus he created some extraordinarily powerful, beautiful and complex music for the solemn occasion of the new Elector’s visit to Leipzig to accept the town’s declaration of allegiance. The Nicene Creed, originally written in Greek and one of the fundamental creeds of Christianity, was drawn up by the Council of Nicaea, a meeting of bishops in AD 325, the first ecumenical (=worldwide) council consisting of church leaders who met to discuss teachings about Jesus. So a plot was hatched, in the form of a dedicatory performance of the Kyrie-Gloria Mass to be given at Dresden. Though this was not immediately forthcoming, after a reminder in 1736 by Bach's influential friend Count von Keyserlingk, the title of Compositeur of the Royal Court Capelle was "conferred upon Johann Sebastian Bach on the latter's most humble entreaty and because of his ability". The effect is indeed glorious. These two movements would later form the opening of the B-Minor Mass. The Benedictus, apparently the vestige of a lost tenor aria, with its slow, long, graceful vocal and instrumental lines is an evocation of serene love and longing. In a society which regards Kings as divinely appointed by God, Bach would have seen no incongruity in using the same music to praise the King of Poland and the King of Heaven. Bach was organist, since the organ there was tuned a whole tone lower than those of the Leipzig churches. Et incarnatus est. Bach subsequently sent the music to his Royal Majesty, in the hopes of obtaining a position at his court. The choir for this piece is divided into six parts. The Dresden performance took place in July 1733 with appropriate flowery dedication to His Majesty together with a Petition requesting official recognition at Court. Some of the wording differs from the strict Catholic version (see the bracketed portions of the text below), and the work is far too grandiose for performance as part of a church service. It does, however, transport the Latin Ordinary to the realm of the immeasurable. The Mass in B minor is a consecration of a whole life. The Quoniam, with its dark tones of horn obligato and well-rounded bassoon duet figurations, provides an impressive vehicle for the bass soloist, and leads straight into the gloriously jubilant Cum Sancto Spiritu, complete with agile choral fugue, marking the end of Bach's original Missa. 215 (1734) 'Preise dein Glucke, gesegnetes Sachsen' ('Praised be your fortunes, most blessed Saxony'), a piece performed in honour of the coronation of Augustus III as King of Poland. The text of the Patrem belongs to the same sentence as that of the preceding movement. The Credo uses one of the old church modes (the Mixolydian). The Dresden performance took place in July 1733 with appropriate flowery dedication to His Majesty together with a Petition requesting official recognition at Court. Postscript Thus we look back over Bach's choral music to find the origins of the Mass, back, first of all, to the foundation stone, a short Kyrie-Gloria Mass from 1733. Great Mass in C minor (German: Große Messe in c-Moll), K. 427/417a, is the common name of the musical setting of the mass by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and considered one of his greatest works. If Bach had lived longer, it is likely that he would have created a definitive fair copy of the Mass, similar to those of the St. John and St. Matthew Passions. Bach's Kyrie and Gloria were, diplomatically, acceptable equally to both faiths. By this time, Bach had established a wide reputation as composer, musician, organist, and as an expert in organ construction and acoustics. The Nicene Creed, originally written in Greek and one of the fundamental creeds of Christianity, was drawn up by the Council of Nicaea, a meeting of bishops in AD 325, the first ecumenical (=worldwide) council consisting of church leaders who met to discuss teachings about Jesus. It leads directly into the Qui tollis, a revision of part of the opening chorus of Cantata No. In this sense the Mass is comparable to The Art of Fugue and The Musical Offering, both late collections of works that are his crowning achievements in, respectively, fugue and other contrapuntal forms. The Missa Solemnis is one of the greatest Catholic Masses and one of the most powerful religious compositions of all time, in a class with Bach's Mass in B Minor and the best of Haydn and Mozart. The pattern of its first three notes would never have occurred in the music of Palestrina. By using a passacaglia in the center of the Credo movements, Bach seems to be saying that the article of faith is too important to be said once, but must be stated again and again. Leipzig, being Saxony's most important city after the capital Dresden, was first to receive the Royal Visit. Archaic Gregorian chants appear, for example, in the Credo, Patrem, Confiteor and Sanctus. The magnificence of this work is signalled at the very outset with the mighty adagio five-part setting of the words Kyrie eleison succeeded by a fugal section of architectural grandeur and complexity. During the Church Service in the Nikolaikirche, Leipzig's main church, Capellmeister and Director Musices Johann Sebastian Bach conducted a performance of the Kyrie and Gloria especially composed for the Occasion. The Nicene Creed, originally written in Greek and one of the fundamental creeds of Christianity, was drawn up by the Council of Nicaea, a meeting of bishops in AD 325, the first ecumenical (=worldwide) council consisting of church leaders who met to discuss teachings about Jesus. The performing parts were copied out in secret by members of the Bach family only, so that neither the Thomas School nor City officials would be aware of Bach's intentions. The Credo bursts forth with two vibrant fugal choruses. Some kind of Royal Title from the Dresden Court would give him the prestige he needed and felt was his due. The chorus Et incarnatus est depicts an intense awe, an emotion that is deepened into despair in the Crucifixus, reworked from a chorus in a youthful Weimar Cantata, No. From 1740 until his death in 1750, Bach would become more introspective, philosophical, looking back over his varied life and compositions, and reviewing the legacy he would leave to the future – for he certainly considered this an important aspect of his art, especially as tastes in music were turning rapidly away from the baroque arts of fugue and counterpoint towards the more informal style of the rococo and classical periods. Though this was not immediately forthcoming, after a reminder in 1736 by Bach's influential friend Count von Keyserlingk, the title of Compositeur of the Royal Court Capelle was "conferred upon Johann Sebastian Bach on the latter's most humble entreaty and because of his ability". 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